Substitution Drills





A substitution drill is a classroom technique used to practice new language. It involves the teacher first modeling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. The teacher then substitutes one or more key words, or changes the prompt, and the learners say the new structure. Substitution drills work best at the beginning levels. They enable students to focus on structure while learning related vocabulary.  Teachers first teach a dialogue or sentence structure, then allow students to substitute different content words.
Example:
A: It’s __________ today.
hot
warm
cold
raining
snowing
B: It sure is.
A: How about going _____________?
swimming
skating
shopping
skiing
B: I went _______________ last week.
swimming
skating
shopping
skiing
A: All right then. What should we do?
B: Let’s stay home and watch TV.
Drill is a method of teaching technique used for practicing sound or sentence partners concerned with the fixation of specific association for automatic recall. The final goal is a more or less effortless exchange of ideas in real – life conversation. The “Drill” is here refers to the “Response drill” in teaching grammar
Types of Pattern Drill
There are thirteen types of drill. They are:
1.       Repetition Drills
This drill is the simplest drill used in learning language patterns. It is used at the very beginning of language class. Language learners merely repeat what the teacher says or the tape recorder produces. This may be used for the presentation of new vocabulary and will be useful for pronunciations class.
Example:
Teacher : I study in the morning
Students : I study in the morning
Teacher : I study in the afternoon
Students : I study in the afternoon.
2.      Substitutions Drill
Language learners are required to replace one word with another. They may replace a word of the model sentence with a pronoun, number, or gander and make some the necessary change.
Example:
Teacher : John is cold
Teacher : Hungry
Students : John is hungry
Teacher : in the class
Students : John is in the class
Teacher : John and Marry
Student : John and Marry are in the class
3.      Transformation Drill
Language learners are required to change sentences from negative to positive, from positive to interrogative, or from simple present tense to simple past tense, depending on the instructions from the teacher.
Example:
Teacher : The book is new
Students : is the book new?
Teacher : we are in the class
Students : are we in the class
4.      Replacement Drill
Language learners replace a noun with a pronoun. It is the same drill as substitution drill but it involves with a replacement.
Example:
Teacher : I like the book
Student : I like it
Teacher : I met the people in Jakarta
Student : I met them in Jakarta
Teacher : John will come here
Student : he will come here
5.      Response Drill
Language learners respond to somebody’s sentence. In this drill this answers are patterned after the questions. This drill may involve “wh” questions or “yes/no” questions.
Example:
Teacher : Alice is at school.
Teacher : Where is Alice?
    Students : At school.
6. Cued Response Drill
In this drill language learners are provide with a cue before or after the questions.
Example
Teacher : What did the man buy? (A book)
Students : The man bought a book.
Teacher : Who will help us? (His brother)
Students : His brother will help us.
7. Rejoinder Drill
It is similar to the cued response drill. In this drill language learners are given instruction of how to respond.
Example:
Teacher : come to my house (be polite)
Students : Would you like to come to my house
Teacher : your idea is not good (disagree)
Students : I disagree with your idea
8. Restatement
Language learners rephrase an utterance and address it to somebody else, according to the content of the utterance.
Example:
Teacher : Tell him where you live
Students : I live at Raden Intan Street no.5
Teacher : Ask her what she has for breakfast
Students : What do you have for breakfast?
9. Completion Drill
Language learners are told to supply a missing word in a sentence or statement.
Example:
Teacher : I bring my book and you bring….
Student : I bring my book and you bring your book
Teacher : I have to solve… own problems
Students : I have to solve my own problems.
10. Expansion Drill
Language learners build up a statement by adding a word or phrase.
Example:
Teacher : Mathematics
Students : We study mathematics
Teacher : everyday
Students : We study mathematics everyday.
11. Contraction Drill
Language learners replace a phrase or clause with a single word or shorter expressions.
Example:
Teacher : I didn’t mean to kill the bird
Students : I didn’t mean it
Teacher : don’t go to the plane
Students : don’t go there
12. Integration Drill
Language learners combine two separate statements.
Example:
Teacher : Which one do you think is true? The earth goes around the sun or the sun goes around
Student : I think the earth goes around the sun
Teacher : I know that lady. She is a wearing a blue shirt
Student : I know the lady wearing a blue shirt.
13. Translation Drill
Language learners translate a sentence a from their mother tongue to the target language
Example:
Teacher : Saya sangat senang buah – buahan.
Student : I like fruit very much.
Teacher : Ada beberapa murid di kelas itu.

Student : There are some students in that class.

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