INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS

Note to the Reader

Start to Learn Linguistics is mainly taken from Todd, Loreto. 1987. An Introduction to Linguistics. York Press and it is also compiled from some linguistics sources to provide basic information about the analysis and description of languages and about the ways in which human beings use their languages to communicate with one another. That is what Start to Learn Linguistics about, and how it should be defined.

Start to Learn Linguistics is intended to serve as an introduction to linguistics to more advanced and more specialized material for those students who wish to continue the study of linguistics. It also provides a basic foundation in concepts and terminology for those students—particularly in education and the various service professions—who do not plan to be linguists but who feel that the ability to read linguistic literature related to their own field of expertise would be a useful skill. Finally, Start to Learn Linguistics is written for those who have no specific professional goals, but who are simply interested in the subject.

Contents

Chapter 1: WHAT IS LINGUISTICS? 
     What is Language?
     The Component of Language

Chapter 2: PHONOLOGY 
     Phonetics
     Phonetic Transcription
     The organ of Speech
     Vowel and Consonants
     Articulation
     Articulatory Setting
     Classification of Consonants
     Manner of Articulation
     Place of Articulation
     Classification of Vowel
     The Cardinal Vowels
     Suprasegmental Phonemes

Chapter 3: THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH
     The Phonemes of English
     The Consonants of English
     The Vowel of English
     Consonant Clusters
     Consonant Clusters in Initial Position
     Consonant Clusters in Final Position

Chapter 4: MORPHOLOGY
     Free and Bound Morphemes
     Allomorphs
     Derivational Morphology
     Inflectional morphology
     Inflection versus Derivation
     Summary

Chapter 5: LEXICOLOGY
     What do we mean by ‘word’?
     Word Formation
     Word Classes
     Summary

Chapter 6: SYNTAX 
     The phrase
     The clause
     The sentence
     Subordinate Clauses
     Sentence Structure
     Phrase Structure Tree
     Summary

Chapter 7: SEMANTICS
     The Meaning of ‘Meaning’
     Polysemy
     Synonymy
     Antonymy
     Hyponymy
     Hipernymy
     Meronymy
     Ambiguity
     Idioms
     Summary

Chapter 8: BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS
     Sociolinguistics
     Psycholinguistics
     Applied Linguistics
     Students’ Activities
     Phonetic Spelling

References

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